Рacking and containers
Рacking and containers
Рacking and containers
Рacking and containers
Рacking and containers


Packing, containers and marking — requisites for dispatching of motor transport spare parts

1. Packing and containers should guarantee delivery of goods by sea in usual terms without losses and damages to the client's warehouse- till 3 months if the cargo if normally treated in the port.

2. Requisites are the following:
2.1. Use of containers which construction guarantees:
2.1.1. Use of crane or auto-loader to transfer the goods;
2.1.2. Protection of cargo from vibration and blows;
2.1.3. Possibility of transportation of containers in several tiers with total pressure to the floor till 2—2,5 tones /m2;
2.1.4. Protection from theft, impossibility of withdrawal of a part of the cargo without visible destruction of container.
2.2. Use of package and preservation of goods for their protection from precipitations during several days and direct sun rays, during several weeks — from salty sea fog.

3. Requisites for additional storage of goods after supply shall be especially agreed in the contract, because storage out of closed warehouse or in the warehouse without humidity control — during long term (more than six months) requires special preparation of containers, special packing and preservation of goods.

4. According to the type of goods one of five types of containers should be used:
— universal crates;
— specialized crates;
— standard container of 20—40- foot as a box;
— specialized container of factory-producer;
— specialized container — package: bunches, pile, bales etc. — traditional for several types of goods.
4.1. Universal crates are made by softwood, thickness of boards 20—25 mm. After packing all crates are tightened by steel tape. Dimensions of crates are determined by convenience of their loading into standard containers of 20—40- foot.
4.1.1. Crates with double tray as a bottom that include carcass, lateral planking and cover, have the following dimensions (cm)
114 × 90 × 70
114 × 90 × 105
114 × 90 × 210
Cargo capacity of these crates — till 800 kg.
4.1.2. Crates with с handles for reloading manually, without carcass, gross weight till 160 kg have the following dimensions (cm)
100 × 50 × 50
60 × 50 × 50
If the quantity of these crates is big, for convenience of reload they are collected in bags and put in euro trays.
4.2. Specialized crates are used in the following cases:
4.2.1. — if the dimensions of shipped item do not allow to be packed in standard crate (for example, engines YAMZ, springs and laminated springs, cardan shafts);
4.2.2. — if the use of substandard crates allows to raise considerably the effectiveness of use of container of 20—40- foot (for example, packing in one box of 2 engines GAZ or UAZ if the batch is 50—60 items);
4.2.3. — if a light-weight cargo is shipped (for example, radiators, headlights, rubber branches etc.), that allow to use high (till 220 cm) crates of a bigger volume, that permits to reduce specific expenses for containers.
4.2.4. Such crates are made from softwood, thickness of boards 20—40 mm. Dimensions of specialized crates shall not exceed (cm) — 230 × 230 × 220, gross weight — 2,5 tones.
4.3. In some cases the safety of goods can be guaranteed by using standard containers of 20—40-foot as packing box. At the same time manufacturing of additional substandard boxes used to transport of these goods in this container, if the price of the good is not high, bring to unjustified rise in price of goods (even if the loading is done manually).
Example of such goods:
— light-weight goods that do not require a special preservation(wheel disks for lorries, tires, assembled wheels, cabins and bodies);
— long goods that do not require special preservation (big cardan transmissions, coupling mechanisms for trailers, special pipes);
— packed in bunches primed parts of automobile bodies, in particular, wings for motorcars.
Using of container without additional packing boxes should be coordinated with client.
4.4. Supplier can use special containers, that uses factory-producer of goods, if considers that it guarantees correspondent protection of goods (after additional processing of container as well).
Our experience confirms high quality of the following package:
— package of crystal plants that produce windshields for motorcars;
— containers and boxes for oil and water radiators.
4.5. Examples of traditional package without containers:
— bunch of drive sprockets for heavy tractors;
— pile of steel sheets, packed between two steel sheets of bigger dimension, pressed down around the pile and bound by steal wire.

5. Packing.
5.1. During the packing to containers according to paragraphs 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 the goods are unbound in such a way that excludes such movements in the container that can lead to damage of goods or their anti corrosion cover. According to the form and weight of detail and their fixation, boards, plywood, cardboard, etc. are used. If the packing is tight the details are separated by packing paper.
It is necessary to pay much attention to protection of processed working surfaces, in particular, that have with connecting thread, as well as protuberant details and units — shafts, branches and flanges.
5.2. During the packing into containers according to paragraphs п. п. 4.1, 4.2 the contents are protected from atmospheric influences, for example, by hermetic envelope made from plastic or polyethylene tape. The tape is protected inside and outside by packing paper. It is not allowed to put inside the envelope packing materials, that contain water (not dried boards).
Individual or group protection is preferable (if characteristics of weight and dimensions of packed goods allow) using hermetically sealed bags from plastic or polyethylene tape. If it is necessary, the bags can be protected inside by packing paper. All contents of the box (bags) in this case are protected from precipitations by bituminous paper (pergamin or ruberoid), that is laid inside the box. Piling in the box shall guarantee integrity of the bags inside.
In case of packing of lathing with not preserved goods, such as core of radiators and lathing of heavy body details such as back bridges of heavy Lorries that are protected in a different way it is allowed omission of hermetic envelope. Omission of hermetic envelope in other cases (for example for big units such as engines, gear-box) is to be agreed with client.
5.3. Packing of boxes.
5.3.1. During packing of boxes according to paragraphs 4.1., 4.2. it is preferable an individual packing of the items of the contract.
5.3.2. Some items are piled in one box if the supplied quantity does not fill the box chosen by cargo characteristics. It is allowed to pile in one box items of two or three positions if it permits considerably to raise effectiveness of using the container and do not worsen cargo protection.
Total quantity of items should not exceed 15.
5.3.3. The lots of goods are to be piled in containers by lots or by group of lots.
5.4. If several items are piled in one box, each item should be separated from the others by a barrier. In particular protective gaskets made by packing materials may be used as barriers. Goods shipped can not be used as gaskets or cavity fillers of other goods.
Heavy and solid goods are piled in the bottom of the box, light-weighted and less solid in the top of the box. Goods similar by these characteristics should be separated by vertical barriers.
5.5. Small details (weight 1 kg and less), if they do not fill all box (of its compartment with walls), should be grouped in packing containers (boxes, sacks, bundles, bunches, etc.). Quantity of items in packing list should be equal to the contract or should be grouped to be convenient for counting 10, 20, 50 etc.
5.6. Every item in the box should be identified, unit (items) or its packing container (boxes, bundles) should be marked, should be provided with label, sticker etc. indicating the item (and quantity of items in packing list), these indications should coincide with indications in packing list.
5.7. Fragile goods — headlights, light devices and their parts, high-temperature gaskets etc. should be packed in individual boxes or compartments with solid walls. Inside the box these items should be piled with additional amortization by packing materials.
5.8. Windshields should be shipped in containers of factory-producer if necessary tightened outside by boards, plywood and banding in order to make it more resistible.
If it is impossible to use an original crate — install tapes of thick rubber in the bottom of a wooden box with small slits to place windshields. In the top the windshields are clutched by wooden laths with rubber tape. To damp vibrations it is recommended to use rubber gaskets with the form of tape with deep slits, that are placed in the edge of the windshield and limits its movements towards neighboring windshields.

6. Before packing we made a revision 100% of condition of spare parts and if necessary its preservation.
It is not allowed presence of dirt and traces of corrosion in surfaces that are subject to preservation.
6.1. Non protected parts of surface and defects of covering of metal details and units that have anti corrosion covering (paint, enamel) should be covered by oil with anti corrosion additions.
6.2. Details and units of ferrous and nonferrous metals, oxidized and/or with galvanic covering without solid protection covering should be bathed in liquid lubricant with anti corrosion additions. The lubricant is protected from running by impermeable paper, the impermeable paper is protected by packing paper, polyethylene tape, etc.
6.3. Docking and joining assemblies, regulation assemblies of engines, gear-boxes, petrol and brake equipment and other assembled units, should be lubricated before shipment and covered by packing materials; all pipes and holes that go to inner cavities of these units should be closed.
6.4. If necessary to preserve separate units or surfaces of units that are packed in container without additional packing containers, the correspondent sections after application of protection lubricant are covered by paper then by plastic of polyethylene tape, that should be fasten hard by twine and/or adhesive tape.
6.5. Joining (assembly) surfaces of units (made by cast iron or special types of steel), designated to work in hard conditions of grating by the ground or other working environment, (links in caterpillar track and drive sprocket of tractors) should be preserved.
6.6. If electro technical and other precise equipment that is not designated to function in the open air is shipped, preservation should include additional packing of goods (before their piling in packing container) in hermetically sealed plastic bags that contain silica gel. Piling in packing containers should guarantee integrity of bags.
6.7. Compositions and method of application preservation lubricants according to paragraphs 6.1.—6.5. are described in Annex 1. Preservation method according to paragraph 6.6. is described in Annex 2. List of materials used for preservation and package is described in Annex 3.

7. Each crate according to paragraphs 4.1., 4.2., 4.4. should have inside packing list, placed in polyethylene bag. If it is agreed with client, the second copy of packing list in polyethylene bag should be joined to an external side of the crate and protected by metal cover.
Package containers according to paragraph 4.5. should be provided by packing list as well, accessible for reading without damaging the integrity of package.

8. Before shipment packing containers should be marked by indelible paint and/or by felt pan. Marking should be stipulated in the contract and before shipment may be additionally specified by the client. The Supplier chooses additional conventional signs that precise particularities of treatment of goods during reloading.
If the goods are shipped in containers to the warehouse of the client, marking is applied on one side of the crate. If the goods are shipped to the port by motor transport without container the crates should be marked on two joined lateral sides.
To mark packing containers according to paragraph 4.5. if necessary plywood tags can be used.

9. If during the shipment of container according to paragraph 4.3. (without additional packing) the container is filled partially, the correspondent section is separated by force barrier from other goods. This barrier can be made in form of wooden shield or in form of obstruction made of some wooden laths, fastened in slots of container walls.
In this case the packing list and marking should be attached to the barrier that separates the section.